The market for probiotics and other microbiome modulators is expected to grow 6.7% annually from 2020 to 2027, reaching $76.7 billion by 2027. And as we learn more about how bacteria can promote health beyond the gut, new potential applications abound. But probiotics are no ‘low-hanging fruit’: there are many challenges in developing and producing these living organisms. To reduce risk and ensure fast time to market, they must be addressed as early as possible. We get the latest insights from microbiome and fermentation expert: Dr. Janneke Ouwerkerk.