Transcriptomics is a gene expression analysis or sequencing technology assessing the transcriptome (RNA) of a cell, tissue, organ or organism. Transcriptomics can be applied for both samples harvested from in vivo or from in vitro studies. This analysis is commonly used to identify differences in gene expression between different conditions studies upon specific treatment with (food or drug) components for example. Metatranscriptomics or microbial transcriptomics can be used to investigate host-pathogen interactions or resistance to specific antibiotics in microbiome samples.