In vitro refers to biological materials such as microorganisms, cells and cellular components (molecules) isolated from their natural environment to be applied for several research applications in laboratory settings where high throughput screening is possible. This type of research is performed in a test tube/flask and is often applied to mimic the actual biological (in vivo) situation in the lab. In vitro technologies can be applied for gaining more detailed mechanistic insights in way of working of specific (food)ingredients and potential drugs. 

In vitro fermentation models, in specific, focus on microbiota and probiotic related type of research. Latest research with in vitro models focusses on combination of diverse range of these technologies to be used in parallel where larger amount of data/information can be collected from.